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足球运动的起源与发展

添加时间:2017-07-10 11:53
  2004年,国际足联确认足球起源于中国,古称“蹴鞠”或“蹋鞠”.《战国策?齐策》记载:“临淄甚富而实,其民无不……蹋鞠者。”这是现今关于足球运动最早的文字纪录。
  
  In 2004, FIFA verified that the very earliest form of football game originated from ancient China, called Cujuor Taju. In the section Volume of State of Qi in Stratagems of the Warring States, it mentioned that Linzi is avery rich city, where all the people play… Cuju to entertain themselves, which is the earliest written record aboutfootball.
  
  训练标准初成体系 Initial Training StandardSystem.
  
  从汉代起,蹴鞠成为当时士兵训练的重要内容之一。东汉文学家李尤所着《鞠城铭》,短短48字概况了当时的球场形制、竞技方式和比赛规则,规定球场为东西方向的长方形,两端各设六个对称的月牙形“鞠域”也称“鞠室”,各由一人把守,场地四周设有围墙;比赛分为两队,互有攻守,以踢进对方鞠室的次数决定胜负,初步形成了蹴鞠标准形态。
  
  Cuju had been an important course in soldier trainingprogram since Han Dynasty. An Inscription aboutCuju written by literator Li You in East Han Dynastygenerally desribed the field shape and rules in just 48words, stating that the field was a rectangle with east-west direction; on each end of the court, there wassix crescent-shaped goals; there were two teams, bothsides had the offense and defense mutually, the winnerwas the team with the most shots at the opponent'sgoal, which had initially developed the Standard Cujumatch.
  
  唐宋时期,蹴鞠进一步发展。南宋《武林旧事》曾列出了“筑球三十二人”竞赛时两队的名单与位置,这被认为是历史上的第一份足球“首发名单”.蹴鞠用球也制定了严格的工艺标准,从唐代的“八片尖皮”进化为宋代的“十二片香皮”,规定球必须“正重十二两”,“密砌缝成,不露线角”.
  
  Cuju f ur ther developed in the Tang and Song Dynasties. In Southern Song Dynasty, “Anecdotes ofMartial Arts”listed the total 32 players' names andpositions, which was considered as the first footballinitial lineup in history. The ball also had a very strictcrafting standard, in which the shell was developedfrom eight piece leather in Tang Dynasty to twelvepieces leather in the Song Dynasty, and must conformto the requirement of dense stitching with no lint andweighed 0.6 kg.
  
  到了清代,蹴鞠在中国逐渐衰落,而现代足球却开始在欧洲蓬勃兴起。
  
  In Qing Dynasty, Cuju was on the wane in China.Meanwhile, modern football was booming in Europe.
  
  竞赛标准日益完善 The Improvement ofCompetition Standard.
  
  现代足球运动起源于19世纪中叶的英国。
  
  1863年10月26日,世界上第一个正式的足球组织--英格兰足球协会在伦敦成立,这一天也被视为现代足球运动的诞生日。
  
  Modern football originated in the mid-nineteenthcentury in Britain. The Football Association, the first official football association in the world, formedin London on 26 October 1863, the day was alsoregarded as the birthday of modern football.
  
  1904年5月21日,国际足球联合会在法国巴黎成立,进一步带动了足球运动在世界范围的蓬勃发展,足球的硬件标准(足球设施)和软件标准(足球比赛规则)日益完善。比如,规定标准足球场的长度105米、宽度68米,球门宽7.32米、高2.44米,比赛时间、赛程设置、裁判执法等竞技规则也日趋标准化。
  
  FIFA was founded in Paris, France on May 21st, 1904,has further stimulated the flourishing of football gamesin the worldwide. The hardware standard (facility)and software standard (rules) has been improved. Forexample, the full-size football field specifies the lengthof the field is 105 m, the width is 68 m; the width ofgoal is 7.32 m and the height is 2.44 m. Competitionrules, such as playing time, agenda for competitionand refereeing, has been increasingly standardized.
  
  大数据助力发展 Big Data Support theDevelopment.
  
  随着科技的发展,大数据在现代足球运动中的应用越来越得到重视,最典型的个案莫过于2014年世界杯。
  
  With the development of technology, the applicationof big data is more and more important in the modernfootball games. The 2014 World Cup is a typical case.
  
  当时,德国队采用大数据技术备战,根据数据分析统计不断优化训练方案,制定相应的球队训练、营养和康复标准,为帮助球队一路闯关、最终夺冠奠定了重要的基础。此后,世界各国纷纷效仿,并进一步把这种技术延伸到球探领域,形成了一套独特的潜力球员选拔和发掘标准。
  
  German national team applied big data to preparethe World Cup Games. They optimized the trainingprogram according to the data analysis and developeda series of standards for training, nutrition andrecovery, which helped them to defeat all theopponents and finally won the game. After that, othercountries follow German experience, then extend bigdata technology to scouting network, and develop aunique standard to spot and select potential player.
  
  结语 Conclusion.
  
  一场精彩的足球比赛,离不开场上酣畅淋漓的竞技对抗,更离不开场下看不见的标准技术支撑。从硬件设施到竞技规则,从球队管理到球员挖掘,正是这些环节的标准化体系不断完善,才合力成就了足球“世界第一运动”的美誉。
  
  A great football game depends on steep competitionwith ease and verve and also the invisible technicalstandards support. From the hardware to rules,from team management to potential player,the standardization system has been improvedcontinuously, which facilitate football to acquire thereputation of the most popular game in the world.